Due to the high yield and unpretentiousness, hazelnuts are so fond of many gardeners. It is important to consider that it is quite difficult to get seedlings on your own, which is why it is recommended to purchase them in specialized stores. Hazelnut grows not only in warm and sunny areas, but can also grow in Siberia. In this case, you will need to choose frost-resistant varieties and, if possible, cover them for the winter.
Hazel and hazelnut - what's the difference
Before considering the differences between hazelnuts and hazel, it is worth considering that they belong to the same family, as a result of which they have the same composition, useful properties, external similarity. A distinctive feature is the fact that hazelnuts are cultural, and hazelnut is a wild tree.
Hazelnut fruits are much larger than that of hazel, they have a rich composition, which includes nutrients, proteins and fats. In turn, hazel is much sturdier, tolerates low temperature conditions, which is not the case with its relative. Despite this, hazelnuts can be grown in many regions of Russia, but in most cases it needs shelter for the winter.Tip! If necessary, you can compare the tree and leaves of hazel in the photo with the appearance of hazelnuts.
What does hazelnut look like
Hazelnut is a deciduous shrub capable of reaching a height of up to 10 m. The hazelnut bark has an ash-gray tint, the shoots are red-green, rather thick. The leaves are oval or heart-shaped, slightly pointed at the edge; besides, there is a jagged border on the leaves, the color of which can vary from green to crimson. The width of the leaves - about 6 cm, length reaches 12 cm.
During the flowering period, flowers of two sexes appear - male and female. Male flowers resemble the shape of an earring, the length of which is 10 cm. Female - these are red and oblong-shaped buds. Nuts are usually egg-shaped, the length can be up to 3 cm, the core is protected by a strong shell.
As a rule, flowering takes place throughout the winter period and ends only in early spring. In winter, hazelnut attracts eyes with multi-colored earrings, which can be green, orange or pink. After pollination has been carried out, the earrings turn yellow.
The hazelnut has a rather developed root system, it can grow in shady places, as a result of which it can be grown even on slopes. High yields can be achieved only if the hazel is grown on a flat, sunny area that is protected from strong gusts of wind.Important! It should be borne in mind that there are a large number of varieties of hazelnuts, and each species can have foliage of a different shade, which varies from green to red.
How does hazel
If we take into account the description and photo of common hazel, then it is worth noting that the appearance resembles a shrub whose height can reach up to 5-7 m. In some cases, you can find quite large specimens up to 10 m high. . In the spring on the shrub you can see a lot of bees and insects, in the autumn hazel attracts birds and squirrels.
The hazel bark can be light gray or brown, the structure is smooth. Brim covered with fairly large and wide leaves.
Shrubs grow in the ravines or on the edges. During the flowering period, you can see yellow or golden earrings hanging down - this is what male flowers look like. Flowering occurs at the end of March or at the beginning of April, depending on the temperature and weather conditions.Attention! Fruiting occurs after hazel reaches the age of 7-8 years.
What does a hazelnut look like
To understand what the fruit looks like, you can see a photo of a hazelnut. Nuts have a spherical shape, a shell of a light brown shade. Fruits are large enough, fruits actively every year.
Due to its unique chemical composition, nuts are so appreciated by consumers. The content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates is 98%. Since, after eating, the nuclei are quickly absorbed and digested, the body receives the maximum benefit.
Where hazelnut grows
Hazelnuts, the height of which is capable of reaching in some cases up to 10 m, can grow not only in Russia and Siberia, but also in the following fears:
As you can see, hazelnuts are able to grow in a large number of countries, which is facilitated by the unpretentiousness of this variety of nuts. As practice shows, most varieties of hazelnuts love heat and sun, and this is not surprising, because its predecessors grew exclusively on the sea coasts.
The best finished products are supplied from Turkey. In warm countries receive the largest and most beneficial fruits. In Russia, hazelnuts can be found on the territory of the Crimea and the Caucasus. Also it should be taken into account that finished products are delivered to Russia from Spain, Italy, and China.
Botanical description of hazel
Hazel hazel is referred to as a shrub or tree culture, the height of which varies from 2 to 5 m. The crown may be egg-shaped or spherical, slightly flat. The leaves are oval or rounded, the tip is narrowed. The leaf plate is dark green above and green below.
Male flowers are collected in multi-flowered earrings, in turn, female flowers grow in pairs. The flowering period occurs in spring and summer. After flowering is complete, the fruit formation process begins. Fruiting occurs at the end of summer.
How hazelnut blossoms
In hazelnut there are flowers of different sexes. As a rule, men's - in the form of earrings, women's remind kidneys of a small size. Up to 5 earrings are formed from each bud; their length is 10 cm. A female flower consists of a pistil and an undeveloped perianth.
At a time when the temperature on the street reaches + 12 ° C and higher, the active growth of earrings begins, and they develop much faster in dry weather. When rainy weather bloom will be late. After the formation of earrings has come to an end, the release of pollen begins. Ovaries are formed after 2 months - at the beginning of the summer.
Of particular danger are the frosts that occurred during the period when the female flowers are already pollinated. In this case, you can lose almost the entire crop. As protection of hazelnuts from frost use shelters. For Siberia, you can choose winter-hardy varieties that will not freeze in the spring. It should be borne in mind that the flowering of this sort of hazelnuts will be long and late.Attention! The flowering period is at the end of March or at the beginning of April.
How hazelnut grows
Hazelnuts can grow on almost any kind of soil, as it is an unpretentious plant. It is important to take into account only one point - it is not recommended to plant this nut variety on swampy, sandy and saline soils - in such conditions hazelnuts cannot grow.
The best solution is to choose the slopes and plains on which the rivers do not dry out. This choice is conditioned by the fact that a large amount of moisture is required for normal growth and good yield. If you plant the planting material on the south side, an early awakening occurs, as a result of which the kidneys begin to die during frosts. In the process of landing it is worth considering that the place must be protected from strong gusts of wind.Important! It is best if the soil is loose and able to pass air.
When a hazelnut matures
Hazelnut ripening period occurs in the second half of July and lasts until the end of September. At the initial stage of ripening fruits are green - this means that it is too early to collect them. Also, do not rush and collect fruits in the process of maturation. This is due to the fact that immature hazelnuts are not subject to long-term storage, and the kernels dry out rather quickly.
The degree of maturity is determined by the color of the peel. At the moment when the fruits ripen, they have a brown or yellow shade of the shell - this happens in August. Once the nuts have changed color, you can start harvesting.Tip! Hazelnuts ripen 30 days after cultivated varieties.
Hazelnut grows not only in Russia, but also far beyond its borders. More than 75% of finished products come from Turkey, where they are mainly engaged in the cultivation of hazelnuts.