The art of winemaking needs to learn for many years, but everyone can make homemade wine. However, the preparation of homemade wine from grapes is a complex process that requires knowledge of technology and some important nuances. If you are going to cook wine with your own hands, you need to understand that you have to write down or memorize every step, perform specific actions at a certain time. Therefore, for the period of preparing a homemade alcoholic drink - 40-60 days - you will have to abandon other tasks and stay at home almost constantly, because grape wine does not forgive even the slightest violation of technology.
How to make homemade wine from grapes, tell this article. And yet, here you can find a simple recipe for making a delicious drink, learn about when making wine with added water, and how else can you improve the taste of grape alcohol.
Secrets of making homemade grape wine
The technology of making a wine drink is a rather complicated and time-consuming process. Often, vineyard owners ask: "Am I preparing my wine correctly, or can I do something else to improve the taste of the drink?"
The wine will be tasty, beautiful and aromatic, if you make a homemade wine from the grapes correctly, in accordance with all the recommendations of the professionals in this business. And recommendations from winemakers are as follows:
- For the preparation of wines, it is better to use special wine grape varieties, such as Isabella, Saperavi, Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and others. This does not mean that table or dessert varieties of berries do not fit at all - they can also make excellent wine, simply, in this case, the result can be unpredictable.
- Harvesting is necessary on time: slightly underripe berries with characteristic sourness are most suitable for winemaking. Although many dessert wines are made from berries that have ripened and dried up on the vine. At home, it is better not to wait for ripening, as the berries can ferment, the vinegar will ruin the taste of the drink.
- The best time to harvest is a dry and sunny day. Within a couple of days before harvesting, there should be no precipitation, as water washes away valuable white bloom from the grapes - wine yeast. Therefore, you can not wash the grapes before preparing the wine, the berries are simply removed from the grapes, clearing from the twigs and leaves.
- Ware for winemaking must be sterile, so as not to disturb the fermentation process. Before working, the jars and bottles can be fumigated with sulfur or boiling water, and then dried. The use of such materials as food grade plastic, glass, enamel coating, wood, stainless steel is allowed. Metal utensils are completely unsuitable for this, because it will oxidize and spoil the wine (this also applies to spoons, tolkushek, covers).
- Traditional ingredients for homemade wine: sugar and grapes. Water is added only when they want to get rid of excess acid, and vodka or alcohol will make the wine stronger, preserve it, thereby prolonging the shelf life.
Attention! In no case can not be used for winemaking utensils, which once kept the milk - it will disrupt the fermentation process, even if you carefully wash the container.
Recipe for homemade grape wine step by step
There are simple recipes for grape wine, there are many more complex ones: with the addition of other ingredients, soaking apples, herbs or berries in a drink, saturating the juice with aromas of wood or spices.
Here will be considered a step-by-step recipe for the preparation of a traditional homemade wine, consisting of only two ingredients:
- 10 kg of grapes;
- 50-200 grams of sugar per liter of grape juice (depending on the natural acid of the berries and the taste of the winemaker).
The technology of cooking delicious wine consists of several major stages:
- Grape harvesting and its processing. As already noted, it is better to pluck well-ripened clusters, on which there are still no over-ripe berries. Fall grains should not be taken, because of them, the finished wine may have an unpleasant taste of the earth. The harvest must be processed within two days. First, the berries are sorted, removed garbage and rotted or moldy grapes. Now you need to transfer the grapes (by hand or tolkushkoy) and put the resulting mass in a wide bowl or pan, filling 34 volume. You can not grind grapes with a blender, meat grinder or other similar devices, if the bones are damaged, the wine will become bitter. Dishes with mash (transferred grape mass) are covered with a clean cloth and placed in a dark and warm (18-27 degrees) place. Here the wine will stand for 3-4 days, until the pulp brightens. After half a day, the fermentation process will begin, a hat of peel and bones will rise above the juice. Several times a day, the wort must be mixed so that the wine is not sour.
- Branch juice. After a few days, the hat will brighten, a sour smell will appear over the wine, a quiet hiss will be heard - all this means that the fermentation process has been started. Now you need to collect pop-up pulp, squeeze it with your hands. Juice drain, leaving sediment at the bottom of the tank. All collected grape juice is poured into glass bottles or jars, pre-filtering through several layers of gauze. It is recommended to pour the future wine several times from one vessel to another in order to saturate the juice with oxygen, which is necessary for fermentation. The bottles are not filled to the top - you need to pour no more than 70% of the wine from the total volume of the container.
- Water shutter. Those who are interested in how to make homemade wine, know that the banks should stand with a glove, tubes or a special lid. The fact is that for effective fermentation (and not souring) the wine at this stage does not need oxygen, and the carbon dioxide emitted in the process must also freely come out of the juice. These conditions can be ensured by a water seal - a design that allows gases to freely escape but does not allow oxygen into the wine bottle. This device can look different: a tube connecting wine containers and a jar of water, a special cover for winemaking, a rubber medical glove with a pierced finger.
- The initial stage of fermentation. During this period, there is an active fermentation of grape juice, and the main thing now is to provide the wine with sufficient temperature. For white wine, 16–22 degrees is enough; red needs a little more heat - from 22 to 28 degrees. If the temperature leaps or falls below 15 degrees, fermentation will stop - the wine will turn sour.
- Adding sugar. Perhaps this is the most difficult stage in the preparation of homemade wine. The main task of sugar in winemaking is to process in the process of fermentation and turn into alcohol. Giving the wine a sweet and more pleasant taste is only in second place. You need to know that 2% of sugar can be processed in 1% alcohol. Any grape already contains sugar - an average amount of 20% (in most regions of the country). This means that if the selected recipe for wine without sugar, then the output of the drink will have 10% strength. But the sweetness of the wine will be zero, and not everyone likes this kind of alcohol. It must be remembered that the maximum concentration of wine alcohol is 13-14%; if there is more sugar in the wine, it will not ferment and will adjust the taste of the drink. To determine the sugar content of grapes should be to taste the juice: it should resemble the sweetness of compote or tea, be sweet, but not cloying. For normal fermentation, the wine should not have more than 15-20% sugar. Therefore, sugar is added to the wine in parts, adding the next batch, only when the previous one is processed. The first 50 g per liter of juice is made on the third day of fermentation. When the wine becomes sour again, you can add the following 50 grams of sugar. This procedure is repeated 3-4 times within 14-25 days at the stage of active fermentation of the wort. People who professionally make wine recommend to pour a couple of liters of juice and dilute sugar in them, and only then pour this syrup from the bottle. It is necessary to stop the addition of sugar, when the wine will not sour for a long time - it means that sugar is no longer processed into alcohol.
- Removal of wine from sediment. The fermentation of homemade grape wine is 30-60 days. You can learn about the end of this process by a deflated glove or the absence of air bubbles in a can of water. The wine is lightened at this point, and loose ferment appears at the bottom of the bottle - fermented yeast. In order for dead fungi not to give away their bitterness to wine, it is necessary to drain the drink from the sediment. One or two days before that, the bottles and jars are raised above the floor: you can put the dishes with wine on a stool or on a table. When the agitated sediment sinks again, the wine is poured into another container with a small hose (7-10 mm in diameter). The end of the hose does not bring to the draft more than 2-3 cm.
- Adjust the sweetness. The active fermentation phase is over, the sugar added now will not turn into alcohol, it will only improve the taste of the wine. Add sugar to taste, but do not pour more glass on each liter of wine. Homemade grape wines can be fortified, for this they add vodka or alcohol (from 2 to 15% of the total). It should be remembered that alcohol will make wine harder, worsen the natural aroma.
- Ripening homemade grape wine. The production of the drink does not end there, now follows a stage of "quiet" fermentation. It can last from 40 (for white varieties) to 380 days. If the wine is sweetened, it is necessary to put the water seal back on when the sugar has not been added, put a simple nylon cover on the bottle. Store young wine in a dark and cool place with a stable temperature - the basement works best. As soon as the sediment layer becomes more than 2-4 cm, the wine needs to be drained so that there is no bitterness.
- Storage of finished wine. On the complete readiness of the drink will say the absence of sediment in the bottle - now you can spill a delicious wine into bottles and store it for up to five years.
How to make unconventional homemade wine
Even the most delicious wine from sugar and grapes can find a more interesting alternative. A simple, time-tested recipe will help to diversify the range of homemade wines:
- Polish table wine can be obtained by replacing sugar with raisins. In this case, the amount of raisins should be twice the required dose of sugar.
- Hungarian winemaker also needs raisins, but it also takes wine yeast. A wooden barrel with this drink is buried in the ground and kept there for a year.
- You can put the wine for fermentation, after placing in the bottle a bag of crushed cloves. When the grapes ferment, the cloves are removed - the wine has enough time to get enough of the spicy aroma of this spice.
- Even lemon wine is prepared by adding one lemon to the wort. When the product is fermented, you can add orange peel, lemon balm and a little mint.
- To prepare the famous Moselle wine, you need to boil elder and mint in a wooden barrel. When the container is filled with these flavors, the broth is poured, replacing it with young grape wine. Here you can add a few mint leaves and elderberry flowers.
- Apple grape-based drink is made like this: fresh apples are regularly put into the fermenting wort, replacing them with new ones in a few days (so as not to ferment).
Carrying out the technology of wine making in the article, one can gradually get a fine drink at home that will be no worse than expensive wine from grapes. And adding a bit of fantasy, and at all, it is easy to "compose" your own recipe for wine, the secrets of which will be passed on from generation to generation.